Calamities were tree-like plants that lived in the swamps of the Carboniferous and Permian Periods 360-286 million years ago. They grew near swamps and near sandy banks of rivers. They reached heights of 40 feet or more. In this collection, you will see mostly 3D stem casts that formed in the interior of the plant. The Calamite had a hollow interior and when they died and fell into bodies of water, the interior filled with sediment and fossilization occurred. They became one of many plant species that lived and died during that time period forming the basis of coal that is a source of energy today.